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and its treatments
What Is Cancer?
Types of Cancer

There are more than 100 types of cancer. Types of cancer are usually named for the organs or tissues where the cancers form. For example, lung cancer starts in cells of the lung, and brain cancer starts in cells of the brain. Cancers also may be described by the type of cell that formed them, such as an epithelial cell or a squamous cell.

You can search NCI’s website for information on specific types of cancer based on the cancer’s location in the body or by using our A to Z List of Cancers. We also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults.
This is a cancer of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is present in men and is the size of a walnut and sits below the bladder. The urethra (a tube that carries urine and semen for the bladder to the penis) runs through the gland. The prostate gland produces a thick clear fluid that is an important part of semen.

Prostate cancer is now the most common cancer diagnosed in men in the Uganda, accounting for a quarter of all male cancers. That means that almost 42,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year - that’s more than 110 men each and every day.

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor that starts in the prostate gland. It generally affects the gland cells, and results in an uncontrolled growth of these cells, and forms a lump and can affect the ability to pass water. Eventually, if left untreated, the cancer can grow to involve surrounding areas, or can spread to other organs such as the lymph nodes or bones.

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men above the age of 50 in the country. Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor arising from the prostate gland. It is usually diagnosed in patients aged above 50 and patients either do not have any symptoms or complain of urinary symptoms or back ache. In most patients, suspicion about prostate cancer usually arises because of a blood test knows as PSA which has been done by a health care professional.
A number of risk factors (anything that can increase the chance of developing a cancer) are known for prostate cancer. The risk of developing prostate cancer increases with age. Prostate cancer is quite rare in men under 50, accounting for about 1% of cases.
The risk increases with age. A family history (someone in the family with cancer) increases the risk of developing prostate cancer. The details are complicated and depend on what types of cancer run in the family, the number of individuals affected, whether they were first degree relatives (parent, siblings and children directly related by blood) and age at diagnosis, but family history tends to increase the risk of prostate cancer by anything from 3 to 7 fold.
Black African and black Caribbean men are 2 or 3 times more likely to develop prostate cancer than white men.

The overall lifetime risk for developing prostate cancer is about 1 in 8. However, the risk once again  increases with increasing age.
This to be noted once again that people from Ethnic background, Asian men also having a low risk, white men having a higher risk, and black men having the highest risk of developing the disease.
Most cases of prostate cancer are not genetic, but there are some families with a high incidence of prostate and/or breast cancer (especially when they occur in younger men and women) that may have a genetic link.

If a patient’s 1st degree relative has prostate cancer or breast cancer in female siblings, then they are at a higher risk of developing prostate cancer in the future.
Prostate Cancer.
What kinds of men are at most risk of getting prostate cancer?
Colon Cancer
What is a colonoscopy?
Colonoscopy is a test that allows your doctor to look at the inner lining of your large intestine (rectum and colon). He or she uses a thin, flexible tube called a colonoscope to look at the colon. A colonoscopy helps find ulcers, colon polyps, tumors, and areas of inflammation or bleeding.

How painful is a colonoscopy?
It didn't feel uncomfortable at all, and that's without sedation. However, a few people did remember having some pain or discomfort, either when the colonoscope moved round a corner in the bowel or when the doctor pumped air into the bowel to see the bowel wall more clearly. One man had a cramping pain at this stage.

How do they test for colon cancer?
A rectal exam may reveal a mass in patients with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. A fecal occult blood test (FOBT) may detect small amounts of blood in the stool. This may suggest colon cancer. FOBT must be done along with colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy to screen for and diagnose colorectal cancer.

What are the symptoms of bowel cancer?
Symptoms of bowel cancer can include: bleeding from the rectum or any sign of blood after a bowel motion; a recent and persistent change in bowel habit, for example looser bowel motions, severe constipation and/or needing to go to the toilet more than usual; unexplained tiredness; and abdominal pain.
Common symptoms.
The common breast cancer symptoms include a breast lump, recent nipple retraction, change in the breast texture, contour and shape and blood-stained nipple discharge. Several cancers are also detected from routine breast screening. Breast pain is not a usual symptom of breast cancer.

Note also the commonest symptom of breast cancer is finding a breast lump. Other things that you might notice could include a change in the shape of your nipple (such as the nipple being pulled into the breast), nipple discharge or a rash or crusting on the nipple. Any dimpling or puckering over the skin of the breast also needs to be checked out..

There is no definite age at which women should start checking their breasts. Every woman should be aware of what is normal for them and report any unusual symptoms to their doctor.

All women should have an awareness of their breasts and it is good to start checking at an early age. Younger women will find that their breasts feel lumpier at different times of the month - this is normal and nothing to worry about, but if there is a persistent or hard lump, it should be seen by a doctor.

We can also urge women  to perform a breast exam in their  late teens or 20s. There is no right or wrong way to examine your breasts, but you should try and get used to feeling your breasts about once a month, usually after a period. It can be helpful examining your breasts in the bath or shower, or whilst putting on moisturizer.
Breast Cancer.
At what age and how often should women start checking their breasts?
Recovering from a colonoscopy

If you need pain relief, you can take over-the-counter medicines, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen. Always read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medicine and if you have any questions, ask your pharmacist for advice.
Having sedation can leave you feeling sleepy. You might also find that you’re not so coordinated as usual or that it's difficult to think clearly. This should pass within 24 hours. In the meantime, don't drive, drink alcohol, operate machinery or sign anything important.
Most people don’t have any problems after a colonoscopy but contact the hospital department straight away if you:

• have heavy bleeding from your back passage
• have a swollen abdomen (tummy) or pain in your    
    abdomen that gets worse
• feel weak, or develop a fever
Related information
Barium enema

X-rays usually pass straight through
your bowel so it doesn't show up
well on plain X-ray.
Flexible sigmoidoscopy

Your doctor will use a narrow flexible tube-like video to look inside your rectum.
Virtual Colonoscopy

A procedure used to check your large bowel for polyps and signs of cancer and other ....
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